Sunday, July 25, 2010

Big companies Implement TPM :

Ford, Eastman Kodak, Dana Corp., Allen Bradley, Harley Davidson; these are just a few of the companies that have implemented TPM successfully. All report an increase in productivity using TPM.Kodak reported that a $5 million investment resulted in a $16 million increase in profits which could be traced and directly contributed to implementing a TPM program. One appliance manufacturer reported the time required for die changes on a forming press went from several hours down to twenty minutes! This is the same as having two or three additional million dollar machines available for use on a daily basis without having to buy or lease them. Texas Instruments reported increased production figures of up to 80% in some areas. Almost all the above named companies reported 50% or greater reduction in down time, reduced spare parts inventory, and increased on-time deliveries. The need for out-sourcing part or all of a product line was greatly reduced in many cases.

Basic Idea of TPM :

1) Making Profitable company - Pursuit of economical efficiency,Zero Accidents ,Zero Defects,Zero Failures.

2) Philosophy of prevention

3) Participation by all - overlapping small groups,Autonomous maintenance by operators

4) At Plant,In-process - Keep the equipment at optimal condition,Visual control,Making a clean work shop.

5) Automation, unmanned operation - making a workshop that requires no manpower.

PILLAR 1 - 5 S Technic :

TPM starts with 5S. Problems cannot be clearly seen when the work place is unorganized. Cleaning and organizing the workplace helps the team to uncover problems. Making problems visible is the first step of improvement.
Japanese Term English Translation Equivalent 'S' term
Seiri Organisation Sort
Seiton Tidiness Systematise
Seiso Cleaning Sweep
Seiketsu Standardisation Standardise
Shitsuke Discipline Self - Discipline
SEIRI - Sort out :This means sorting and organizing the items as critical, important, frequently used items, useless, or items that are not need as of now. Unwanted items can be salvaged. Critical items should be kept for use nearby and items that are not be used in near future, should be stored in some place. For this step, the worth of the item should be decided based on utility and not cost. As a result of this step, the search time is reduced.
Priority Frequency of Use How to use
Low Less than once per year, Throw away, Store away
Once per year<>
Average At least 2/6 months, Store together but offline
Once per month, Once per week
High Once Per Day Locate at the workplace
SEITON - Organise :
The concept here is that "Each items has a place, and only one place". The items should be placed back after usage at the same place. To identify items easily, name plates and colored tags has to be used. Vertical racks can be used for this purpose, and heavy items occupy the bottom position in the racks.
SEISO - Shine the workplace :This involves cleaning the work place free of burrs, grease, oil, waste, scrap etc. No loosely hanging wires or oil leakage from machines.
SEIKETSU - Standardization :Employees has to discuss together and decide on standards for keeping the work place / Machines / pathways neat and clean. This standards are implemented for whole organization and are tested / Inspected randomly.
SHITSUKE - Self discipline :Considering 5S as a way of life and bring about self-discipline among the employees of the organization. This includes wearing badges, following work procedures, punctuality, dedication to the organization etc.

PILLAR 2 - Autonomous maintenance(Jishu Hozen) :

This pillar is geared towards developing operators to be able to take care of small maintenance tasks, thus freeing up the skilled maintenance people to spend time on more value added activity and technical repairs. The operators are responsible for upkeep of their equipment to prevent it from deteriorating.
Policy :1. Uninterrupted operation of equipments.
2. Flexible operators to operate and maintain other equipments.
3. Eliminating the defects at source through active employee participation.
4. Stepwise implementation of JH activities.
JISHU HOZEN Targets:1. Prevent the occurrence of 1A / 1B because of JH.
2. Reduce oil consumption by 50%
3. Reduce process time by 50%
4. Increase use of JH by 50%
Steps in JISHU HOZEN :1. Preparation of employees.
2. Initial cleanup of machines.
3. Take counter measures
4. Fix tentative JH standards
5. General inspection
6. Autonomous inspection
7. Standardization and
8. Autonomous management.
Each of the above mentioned steps is discussed in detail below.
1. Train the Employees : Educate the employees about TPM, Its advantages, JH advantages and Steps in JH. Educate the employees about abnormalities in equipments.
2. Initial cleanup of machines :
o Supervisor and technician should discuss and set a date for implementing step1
o Arrange all items needed for cleaning
o On the arranged date, employees should clean the equipment completely with the help of maintenance department.
o Dust, stains, oils and grease has to be removed.
o Following are the things that has to be taken care while cleaning. They are Oil leakage, loose wires, unfastened nits and bolts and worn out parts.
o After clean up problems are categorized and suitably tagged. White tags is place where problems can be solved by operators. Pink tag is placed where the aid of maintenance department is needed.
o Contents of tag is transferred to a register.
o Make note of area which were inaccessible.
o Finally close the open parts of the machine and run the machine.
3. Counter Measures :
o Inaccessible regions had to be reached easily. E.g. If there are many screw to open a fly wheel door, hinge door can be used. Instead of opening a door for inspecting the machine, acrylic sheets can be used.
o To prevent work out of machine parts necessary action must be taken.
o Machine parts should be modified to prevent accumulation of dirt and dust.
4. Tentative Standard :
o JH schedule has to be made and followed strictly.
o Schedule should be made regarding cleaning, inspection and lubrication and it also should include details like when, what and how.
5. General Inspection :
o The employees are trained in disciplines like Pneumatics, electrical, hydraulics, lubricant and coolant, drives, bolts, nuts and Safety.
o This is necessary to improve the technical skills of employees and to use inspection manuals correctly.
o After acquiring this new knowledge the employees should share this with others.
o By acquiring this new technical knowledge, the operators are now well aware of machine parts.
6. Autonomous Inspection :
o New methods of cleaning and lubricating are used.
o Each employee prepares his own autonomous chart / schedule in consultation with supervisor.
o Parts which have never given any problem or part which don't need any inspection are removed from list permanently based on experience.
o Including good quality machine parts. This avoid defects due to poor JH.
o Inspection that is made in preventive maintenance is included in JH.
o The frequency of cleanup and inspection is reduced based on experience.
7. Standardization :
o Upto the previous stem only the machinery / equipment was the concentration. However in this step the surroundings of machinery are organized. Necessary items should be organized, such that there is no searching and searching time is reduced.
o Work environment is modified such that there is no difficulty in getting any item.
o Everybody should follow the work instructions strictly.
o Necessary spares for equipments is planned and procured.
8. Autonomous Management :
o OEE and OPE and other TPM targets must be achieved by continuous improve through Kaizen.
o PDCA ( Plan, Do, Check and Act ) cycle must be implemented for Kaizen.

PILLAR 3 - Kobetsu-Kaizen :

"Kai" means change, and "Zen" means good ( for the better ). Basically kaizen is for small improvements, but carried out on a continual basis and involve all people in the organization. Kaizen is opposite to big spectacular innovations. Kaizen requires no or little investment. The principle behind is that "a very large number of small improvements are move effective in an organizational environment than a few improvements of large value. This pillar is aimed at reducing losses in the workplace that affect our efficiencies. By using a detailed and thorough procedure we eliminate losses in a systematic method using various Kaizen tools. These activities are not limited to production areas and can be implemented in administrative areas as well.
Kaizen Policy :1. Practice concepts of zero losses in every sphere of activity.
2. relentless pursuit to achieve cost reduction targets in all resources
3. Relentless pursuit to improve over all plant equipment effectiveness.
4. Extensive use of PM analysis as a tool for eliminating losses.
5. Focus of easy handling of operators.
Kaizen Target :Achieve and sustain zero loses with respect to minor stops, measurement and adjustments, defects and unavoidable downtimes. It also aims to achieve 30% manufacturing cost reduction.
Tools used in Kaizen :1. PM analysis
2. Why - Why analysis
3. Summary of losses
4. Kaizen register
5. Kaizen summary sheet.
The objective of TPM is maximization of equipment effectiveness. TPM aims at maximization of machine utilization and not merely machine availability maximization. As one of the pillars of TPM activities, Kaizen pursues efficient equipment, operator and material and energy utilization, that is extremes of productivity and aims at achieving substantial effects. Kaizen activities try to thoroughly eliminate 16 major losses.
16 Major losses in a organisation:
1. Failure losses - Breakdown loss
2. Setup / adjustment losses
3. Cutting blade loss
4. Start up loss
5. Minor stoppage / Idling loss.
6. Speed loss - operating at low speeds.
7. Defect / rework loss
8. Scheduled downtime loss
9. Management loss
10. Operating motion loss
11. Line organization loss
12. Logistic loss
13. Measurement and adjustment loss
14. Energy loss
15. Die, jig and tool breakage loss
16. Yield loss.

PILLAR 4 - Planned Maintenance :

Goal - To focus on preventive actions to eliminate equipment failures /Breakdowns in order to ensure availability and reliability of equipments and to minimize cost of maintenance.This breaks maintenance down into 4 "families" or groups which was defined earlier.
1. Preventive Maintenance
2. Breakdown Maintenance
3. Corrective Maintenance
4. Maintenance Prevention
With Planned Maintenance we envolve our efforts from a reactive to a proactive method and use trained maintenance staff to help train the operators to better maintain their equipment.
Policy :1. Achieve and sustain availability of machines
2. Optimum maintenance cost.
3. Reduces spares inventory.
4. Improve reliability and maintainability of machines.
Target :
1. Zero equipment failure and break down.
2. Improve reliability and maintainability by 50 %
3. Reduce maintenance cost by 20 %
4. Ensure availability of spares all the time.
Six steps in Planned maintenance :1. Equipment evaluation and recoding present status.
2. Restore deterioration and improve weakness.
3. Building up information management system.
4. Prepare time based information system, select equipment, parts and members and map out plan.
5. Prepare predictive maintenance system by introducing equipment diagnostic techniques and
6. Evaluation of planned maintenance.

PILLAR 5 - Hinshitsu Hozen (QM) :

To overcome the deficiency in Quality system and to achieve and maintain defect free products.
QM activities is to set equipment conditions that preclude quality defects, based on the basic concept of maintaining perfect equipment to maintain perfect quality of products. The condition are checked and measure in time series to very that measure values are within standard values to prevent defects. The transition of measured values is watched to predict possibilities of defects occurring and to take counter measures before hand.
Policy :1. Defect free conditions and control of equipments.
2. QM activities to support quality assurance.
3. Focus of prevention of defects at source
4. Focus on poka-yoke. ( fool proof system )
5. In-line detection and segregation of defects.
6. Effective implementation of operator quality assurance.
Target :1. Achieve and sustain customer complaints at zero
2. Reduce in-process defects by 50 %
3. Reduce cost of quality by 50 %.
Data requirements :Quality defects are classified as customer end defects and in house defects. For customer-end data, we have to get data on
1. Customer end line rejection
2. Field complaints.
In-house, data include data related to products and data related to process
Data related to product :1. Product wise defects
2. Severity of the defect and its contribution - major/minor
3. Location of the defect with reference to the layout
4. Magnitude and frequency of its occurrence at each stage of measurement
5. Occurrence trend in beginning and the end of each production/process/changes. (Like pattern change, ladle/furnace lining etc.)
6. Occurrence trend with respect to restoration of breakdown/modifications/periodical replacement of quality components.
Data related to processes:1. The operating condition for individual sub-process related to men, method, material and machine.
2. The standard settings/conditions of the sub-process
3. The actual record of the settings/conditions during the defect occurrence.